Month: September 2014

How to Import/Export GNU GPG Keys

How to Import/Export GNU GPG Keys

How to Import/Export GPG Keys-

Step 1) List GPG Keys –

[root@test-host ~]# gpg -kv
pub  1024D/F9F17DC2 2012-09-27 Test GPG key (Created by Arun) <>
sub  2048g/F173E2CC 2012-09-27

pub  1024D/5A6C12B1 2013-02-25 Test2 <>
sub  1024g/CA7BF220 2013-02-25

Step 2) How to Export GPG Key –

[root@test-host ~]# gpg –armor –export  –output /tmp/ -r ‘5A6C12B1’
[root@test-host ~]# cat /tmp/
Version: GnuPG v1.2.6 (GNU/Linux)

[root@test-host ~]# gpg –armor –export-secret-key  -r 5A6C12B1 –output /tmp/mykey.pri
[root@test-host ~]# cat /tmp/mykey.pri
Version: GnuPG v1.2.6 (GNU/Linux)

Step 3) How to Import GPG Keys –

[arunb@test-host2 ~]$ gpg –import   /tmp/mykey.pri
gpg: keyring `/saba/arunb/.gnupg/secring.gpg’ created
gpg: key 5A6C12B1: secret key imported
gpg: key 5A6C12B1: public key Test2 <> imported

[arunb@test-host2 ~]$ gpg –import   /tmp/
gpg: key 5A6C12B1: key Test2 <> 2 new signatures imported
[arunb@test-host2 ~]$

Step 4) Now Test GPG Encryption/Decryption –

[arunb@test-host2 ~]$ echo “arunb” |gpg -v –no-tty  –passphrase-fd 0 –output /tmp/output.csv –decrypt /tmp/mytest.csv.pgp
gpg: public key is CA7BF220
gpg: using secondary key CA7BF220 instead of primary key 5A6C12B1
gpg: using secondary key CA7BF220 instead of primary key 5A6C12B1
gpg: encrypted with 1024-bit ELG-E key, ID CA7BF220, created 2013-02-25
“Test2 <>”
gpg: AES256 encrypted data
gpg: original file name=’mytest_1_1.csv’
[arunb@test-host2 ~]$

Thank you,
Arun Bagul

Choosing a NIC (Network Adapter) for VM in Vmware ESXi environment

Choosing a NIC (Network Adapter) for VM in Vmware ESXi environment


NIC types available for VM  are depends on VM Hardware version and Guest OS (Operating System). When you configure a virtual machine, you can add network adapters (NICs) and specify the adapter type…

The following NIC types widely used:

E1000 –
Emulated version of the Intel 82545EM Gigabit Ethernet NIC, with drivers available in most newer guest operating systems, including Windows XP and later and Linux versions 2.4.19 and later.

E1000e – This feature emulates a newer model of Intel Gigabit NIC (number 82574) in the virtual hardware. This is known as the “e1000e” vNIC. e1000e is available only on hardware version 8 (and newer) virtual machines in vSphere.

VMXNET2 (Enhanced)

Optimized for performance in a virtual machine and has no physical counterpart. Because operating system vendors do not provide built-in drivers for this card, you must install VMware Tools to have a driver for the VMXNET network adapter available.
Based on the VMXNET adapter but provides high-performance features commonly used on modern networks, such as jumbo frames and hardware offloads. VMXNET 2 (Enhanced) is available only for some guest operating systems on ESX/ESXi 3.5 and later.


Next generation of a paravirtualized NIC designed for performance. VMXNET 3 offers all the features available in VMXNET 2 and adds several new features, such as multiqueue support (also known as Receive Side Scaling in Windows), IPv6 offloads, and MSI/MSI-X interrupt delivery. VMXNET 3 is not related to VMXNET or VMXNET 2.
– VMXNET 3 is supported only for virtual machines version 7 and later.
– Support 10Gpbs ie 10Gig Network
– Jumbo frame supported

I would suggest to use  “VMXNET3”

Thank you,

VMware Virtual Machine(VM) Configuration File types

VMware Virtual Machine(VM) Configuration File types


When you create VM (Virtual Machine) in VMWare based Virtualization platform. VMware creates  few VM configuration files in  folder with VM name in Datastore (Local Storage or NFS/SAN). Please find the table which describes files types in vmware…


File Usage File Description File Format
.vmx .vmname.vmx Virtual machine configuration file. ASCII
.vmxf vmname.vmxf Additional virtual machine configuration files, available, for example, with teamed virtual machines. ASCII
.vmdk vmname.vmdk Virtual disk file. ASCII
.flat.vmdk vmname.flat.vmdk Preallocated virtual disk in binary format. Binary
.vswp vmname.vswp Swap file.
.nvram vmname.nvram or nvram Non-volatile RAM. Stores virtual machine BIOS information.
.vmss vmname.vmss Virtual machine suspend file.
.log vmware.log Virtual machine log file. ASCII
#.log vmware-#.log Old virtual machine log files. # is a number starting with 1. ASCII


Thank you,
Arun Bagul