Author: Arun Bagul

DevOps – Comparison of different Configuration Management Software

DevOps – Comparison of different Configuration Management Software

Introduction-

I’m working as DevOps since 2010. Many colleagues, friends asked me about comparison of different Configuration Management Software like Chef, Puppet or Ansible/Salt etc.

It is very important and difficult task to choose right CM(configuration management) software for managing Infrastructure and Application deployments.

I’m attaching pdf file with comparison of different CM hope it will help you.

Document – Devops-Comparison-v3

NOTE: This comparison is purely based on my knowledge and experience. Please feel free to share your updates.

Thank You,

Arun Bagul

Augmented Reality (AR)

Augmented Reality (AR)

I’m sure you might have played “pokemon-go” game!

Augmented Reality (AR) is changing the way we view the world or at least the way its users see the world. Picture yourself walking or driving down the street. With augmented-reality displays, which will eventually look much like a normal pair of glasses, informative graphics will appear in your field of view, and audio will coincide with whatever you see. These enhancements will be refreshed continually to reflect the movements of your head.

What is Augmented reality?
Augmented reality (AR), is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.
Various technologies are used in Augmented Reality rendering including optical projection systems, monitors, hand held devices, and display systems worn on the human body. Also head-up display, also known as a HUD, is a transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. A precursor technology to augmented reality.

Where Augmented reality can be used?
Augmented reality has many applications. First used for military, industrial, and medical applications, by 2012 its use expanded into entertainment and other commercial industries. Also many startup are using AR in navigation, education, maintenance and repair, gaming, interior-design, and advertising and promotion.

What is Virtual reality (VR)?
Virtual reality (VR) is an artificial recreation of the real world that immerses the user in a computer-generated simulated reality. The technology requires expensive enablers such as headsets, which completely block out the users’ surroundings. However, because of the nature of the technology, the user is left blind to the outside world, leaving the technology at a disadvantage when it comes to everyday use.

What is different between Virtual Reality vs. Augmented Reality?

One of the biggest confusions in the world of augmented reality is the difference between augmented reality and virtual reality.  Both are earning a lot of media attention and are promising tremendous growth.

1) Augmented reality and virtual reality are inverse reflections of one in another with what each technology seeks to accomplish and deliver for the user. Virtual reality offers a digital recreation of a real life setting, while augmented reality delivers virtual elements as an overlay to the real world.

2) VR and AR are not really competing technologies, but rather complimentary technologies
3) VR is more immersive, AR provides more freedom for the user, and more possibilities for marketers because it does not need to be a head-mounted display.

What is the Market Size of Augmented reality?
Worldwide revenues for the augmented reality and virtual reality market are projected to approach $14 billion in 2017, according to IDC, the market research firm. But that’s forecast to explode to $143 billion by 2020.
Ref:

http://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS42331217
http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/augmented-reality-virtual-reality.asp

Startup working on Augmented reality?

  • http://www.imaginate.in
    Hyderabad-based Imaginate, a virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) company, is the developer of NuSpace, a hardware-agnostic collaboration platform that enables people to communicate in an interactive realistic virtual world.
  • http://www.vizexperts.com
    Founded in 2004, VizExperts’ clientele includes Border Security Force (BSF), Defence Research and Development Organisations (DRDO), Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) and international conglomerates such as Halliburton, AMD and SGI. The company’s solutions offer improved situational awareness to security forces in a 3D format.
  • http://www.houssup.com

    Thank you,
    Arun Bagul

Top 5 configuration management software

Top 5 configuration management software

Why Configuration Management?

DevOps and CM(Configuration Management) are different. DevOps is about collaboration between people, while CM tools are just that: tools for automating the application of configuration states. Like any other tools, they are designed to solve certain problems in certain ways.
Using CM you can make changes very quickly, but needs to validate those changes. In considering which configuration management tool to select, you should also think about which complementary tool(s) you will use to avoid the costly effects of automating the deployment of bugs in your infrastructure-as-code.  

The advantages of software configuration management (SCM) are:

   –  It reduces redundant work
   –  It effectively manages simultaneous updates
   –  It avoids configuration related problems
   –  It simplifies coordination between team members
   –  It is helpful in tracking defects

Top five(5) tools for configuration management
    
1) Chef –

Like Puppet, Chef is also written in Ruby, and its uses a Ruby-based DSL. Chef utilizes a master-agent model, and in addition to a solo mode call chef-solo.
Chef is one of the most popular SCM tools. It is basically a framework for infrastructure development. It provides support and packages for framing ones infrastructure as code. It offers libraries for building up an infrastructure, which can be deployed easily. It produces consistent, shareable and reusable components, which are known as recipes and are used to automate infrastructure. It comprises the Chef server, workstation, repository and the Chef client.

2) Puppet –
Another SCM tool commonly used is Puppet. It was first introduced in 2005 as an open source configuration management tool. It is written in Ruby. This CM system allows defining the state of the IT infrastructure, and then automatically enforces the correct state. The user describes the systems resources and their state, either by using Puppets declarative language or a Ruby DSL. This information is stored in files known as Puppet manifests. It discovers system information through a utility called Facter and compiles it into a system-specific catalogue containing resources and their dependencies, which are applied against the target systems.

It is frequently stated that Puppet is a tool that was built with sysadmins in mind. The learning curve is less imposing due to Puppet being primarily model driven. Getting your head around JSON data structures in Puppet manifests is far less daunting to a sysadmin who has spent their life at the command line than Ruby syntax is.

3) Ansible –

A newer offering on the market, Ansible has nonetheless gained a solid footing in the industry.
Ansible is an open source platform for CM, orchestration and deployment of compute resources. It manages resources with the use of SSH (Paramiko, a Python SSH2 implementation, or standard SSH). Currently their solutions consists of two offerings: Ansible and Ansible Tower, the latter featuring the platform’s UI and dashboard. Despite being a relatively new player in the arena when compared to competitors like Chef or Puppet, it’s gained quite a favorable reputation amongst DevOps professionals for its straightforward operations and simple management capabilities.

4) SaltStack –

Salt is an open source multitasking CM and remote execution tool. It has a Python-based approach to represent infrastructure as a code philosophy. The remote execution engine is the heart of Salt. It creates a high speed and bi-directional communication network for a group of resources. A Salt state is a fast and flexible CM system on top of the communication system provided by the remote execution engine. It is a CLI-based tool.
It was also developed in response to dissatisfaction with the Puppet/ Chef hegemony, especially their slow speed of deployment and restricting users to Ruby. Salt is sort of halfway between Puppet and Ansible – it supports Python, but also forces users to write all CLI commands in either Python, or the custom DSL called PyDSL. It uses a master server and deployed agents called minions to control and communicate with the target servers, but this is implemented using the ZeroMq messaging lib at the transport layer, which makes it a few orders of magnitude faster than Puppet/ Chef.

5) Juju –

Juju is an open source configuration management and orchestration management tool. It enables applications to be deployed, integrated and scaled on various types of cloud platforms faster and more efficiently. It allows users to export and import application architectures and reproduce the same environment at different phases on cloud platforms such as Joyent, Amazon Web Services, Windows Azure, HP Cloud and IBM.

The main mechanism behind Juju is known as Charms that can be written in any programming language, whose execution is supported via the command line. They are a collection of YAML configuration files.
Clients are available for Ubuntu, Windows and Mac operating systems. Once you install the client, environments can be bootstrapped on various cloud platforms such as Windows Azure, HP Cloud, Joyent, Amazon Web Services and IBM.

Thank you,
Arun Bagul

Launching AWS instance using Chef server

Launching AWS instance using Chef server

Overview: 

                    Chef enables you to automate your infrastructure. It provides a command line tool called knife to help you manage your configurations. Using the knife EC2 plugin you can manage your Amazon EC2 instances with Chef. knife EC2 makes it possible to create and bootstrap Amazon EC2 instances in just one line – if you go through a few setup steps. Following are steps to setup your Chef installation and AWS configuration so that we can easily bootstrap new Amazon EC2 instances with Chef’s knife

Following are the steps need to launch AWS instance.

A. Installation and Configuration of Knife Ec2 instance

  1.  Instaiing knife-ec2 instance:

a. If you’re using ChefDK, simply install the Gem:
$ chef gem install knife-ec2

b. If you’re using bundler, simply add Chef and Knife EC2 to your Gemfile:
$ gem ‘knife-ec2’

c. If you are not using bundler, you can install the gem manually from Rubygems:
$ gem install knife-ec2

In my setup I used ChefDK.

2.  Add ruby’s gem path to PATH variable to work knife-ec2 with AWS

$  export PATH=/root/.chefdk/gem/ruby/2.1.0/bin:$PATH

 3. Add the AWS credentials of knife user to knife configuration file i.e ~/.chef/knife.rb.

——————————————————————————–

knife[:aws_access_key_id] = “user_key_ID”
knife[:aws_secret_access_key] = “User_secret_key”

———————————————————————————

 B. Prepare SSH access to Amazon EC2 Instance.
 1. Configure Amazon Security Group
As Amazon blocks all incoming traffic to EC2 instances by default. We’ll need to open the SSH(22) port for knife to access a newly created instance. Also HTTPS(443) port to communicate launched instance’s chef client with chefserver.Just login to the AWS management console and navigate to EC2 Services Compute Security Groups default group.Then add a rule for Type SSH and HTTPS with Source Anywhere and save the new inbound rule

2. Generate Key Pair in AWS Console
To enable SSH access to Amazon EC2 instances you need to create a key pair. Amazon will install the public key of that key pair on every EC2 instance. knife will use the private key of that key pair to connect to your Amazon EC2 instances. Store the downloaded private key knife.pem in “~/.ssh/knife.pem” of ec2-user.

3. Prepare SSH configuration to avoid host key mismatch errors:
Create “/home/ec2-user/.ssh/config and add below content:
_________________________________________________________
Host ec2*compute-1.amazonaws.com
StrictHostKeyChecking no
User ec2-user
IdentityFile /home/ec2-user/.ssh/knife.pem
_________________________________________________________

 C. Choose an AMI for your Amazon EC2 instances
We need to choose the right AMI for region, architecture and root storage. Note down the AMI ID (ami-XXXXXXXX) to use it with knife.

     

D. Create an EC2 instance using Chef knife:
Now, it’s time to use knife to fire up and configure a new Amazon EC2 instance. Execute below command to create instance.
$sudo knife ec2 server create -r “recipe[dir]” -I ami-0396cd69 -f m3.large -S knife -i /home/ec2-user/.ssh/knife.pem –ssh-user ec2-user –region us-east-1 -Z us-east-1b

Options:
-r is the run_list I want to associate with the newly created node. You can put any roles and recipes you like here
-I is the AMI ID
-f is the Amazon EC2 instance type
-S is the name you gave to the SSH key pair generated in the AWS management console
-i points to the private key file of that SSH key pair as downloaded when the key pair was created in the AWS management console
–ssh-user the official EC2 AMIs use ec2-user as the default user
–region us-east-1 If you want your instances to be deployed in any specific Amazon AWS region, add this parameter and the desired region
-Z us-east-1b is the availability zone within your region

NOTE:
If you did not give the –r i.e run list with above mentioned command, then it throws the Exception below:

     “EXCEPTIONS : NoMethodError Undefined method ‘empty?’ for nil:NilClass”

 

E.   Terminate instance and delete the corresponding Chef node
$ knife ec2 server delete i-XXXXXXXX –region us-east-1
$ knife node delete i-XXXXXXXX

(i-XXXXXXXX is the ID of the instance as found in the AWS management console)

Ravi co-founder of IndianGNU @ 2nd Check_MK Conference in Munich, Germany

Ravi co-founder of IndianGNU @ 2nd Check_MK Conference in Munich, Germany

Introduction-

Ravi Bhure co-founder of IndianGNU attended  2nd Check_MK Conference in Munich, Germany last October,2015 as delegate.

Ravi talked about “Migration from Solarwinds to Check_MK” in Check_MK Munich Conference.

For more information on presentation please visit https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/open-source-monitering-deadly-combo-migration-from-checkmk-burkule

 

Thank you,

Arun

 

 

Website Functional testing using Browser automation

Website Functional testing using Browser automation

Introduction-

Website Functional testing using Browser automation is very important and better than just monitoring url with 200 OK! Your Application or Website URL may be working fine but this doesn’t mean that all components are working fine. So testing your Web Application functionalities with screenshot is important in cloud based product and Uptime Reporting for Customers.

Few years back I wrote article “Firefox yslow and Showslow for Website testing and performance” Ref url- http://www.indiangnu.org/2012/firefox-yslow-and-showslow-for-website-testing-and-automation/

The Mechanize library is used for automating interaction with websites and available for Perl, Python and Ruby..
URL-
http://search.cpan.org/~ether/WWW-Mechanize-1.75/lib/WWW/Mechanize.pm
http://wwwsearch.sourceforge.net/mechanize/
https://pypi.python.org/pypi/mechanize/
http://mechanize.rubyforge.org/

There are several wrappers around “Mechanize” designed for functional testing of web applications: zope.testbrowser and twill

Top 5 Products for “Website Functional testing using Browser automation”…

1) Selenium Browser Automation (http://www.seleniumhq.org) –
Selenium automates browsers. Selenium is a portable software testing framework for web applications. Selenium provides a record/playback tool for authoring tests without learning a test scripting language (Selenium IDE). Selenium WebDriver is the successor to Selenium RC. Selenium WebDriver accepts commands (sent in Selenese, or via a Client API) and sends them to a browser. This is implemented through a browser-specific browser driver, which sends commands to a browser, and retrieves results. Most browser drivers actually launch and access a browser application (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer); there is also an HtmlUnit browser driver, which simulates a browser using HtmlUnit.

Selenium Grid- Selenium Grid is a server that allows tests to use web browser instances running on remote machines. With Selenium Grid, one server acts as the hub. the hub has a list of servers that provide access to browser instances (WebDriver nodes)

2) Splinter (https://splinter.readthedocs.org) –
Splinter is an open source tool for testing web applications using Python. It lets you automate browser actions, such as visiting URLs and interacting with their items. It supports multi webdrivers (chrome webdriver, firefox webdriver, phantomjs webdriver, zopetestbrowser, remote webdriver), support to iframe and alert and execute javascripts.

3) twill (http://twill.idyll.org) –
twill: a simple scripting language for Web browsing. twill is a simple language that allows users to browse the Web from a command-line interface. With twill, you can navigate through Web sites that use forms, cookies, and most standard Web features.

4) zope.testbrowser (https://pypi.python.org/pypi?:action=display&name=zope.testbrowser) –
zope.testbrowser provides an easy-to-use programmable web browser with special focus on testing. It is used in Zope, but it’s not Zope specific at all. For instance, it can be used to test or otherwise interact with any web site.

5) PAMIE  (http://pamie.sourceforge.net) –
P.A.M.I.E. – stands for Python Automated Module For I.E.  Pamie’s main use is for testing web sites by which you automate the Internet Explorer client using the Pamie scripting language. Simply create a script using the free PythonWin IDE that comes with the win32all extensions. import cPAMIE and use the Pamie Scripting Language (PSL) to write a script that simulates a user navigating a web site. It’s simple to use.

There are many product available for web site monitoring…

http://www.monitor.us/
https://ghostinspector.com/
https://www.browserstack.com
https://www.alertbot.com/
https://www.pingdom.com/

Thank you,
Arun Bagul

Configuration management database (CMDB)

Configuration management database (CMDB)

CMDB-
Configuration management database (CMDB) is a repository that acts as a data warehouse for information technology (IT) organizations. Its contents are intended to hold a collection of IT assets that are commonly referred to as configuration items (CI), as well as descriptive relationships between such assets. A Configuration item type (or CI Type) is the data type of the element or configuration item an enterprise wishes to store within the CMDB. At a minimum, all software, hardware, network, and storage CI Types are stored and tracked in a CMDB.

Top 5 CMDB Tools-

1) Combodo iTOP-

IT Operations Portal: a complete open source, ITIL, web based service management tool including a fully customizable CMDB, a helpdesk system and a document management tool. iTop also offers mass import tools and web services to integrate with your IT.

2) OneCMDB –

OneCMDB is a CMDB aimed at small and medium sized businesses. OneCMDB can be used as a stand-alone CMDB to keep track of software and hardware assets and their relations. Thanks to its open API:s it can also be a flexible and powerful Configuration Management engine for other Service Management software.

3) i-doit –

i-doit allows a rich amount of technical information to be filed for each element from a wall outlet to a mainframe in a structured way. Every employee can access this information easily (and in a selective way) through a web browser. Due to its modular architecture, it is possible to deploy functionality add-ons or develop extensions.

4) CMDBuild –

CMDBuild is a configurable web application to model and manage a database containing assets (CMDB stands for “Configuration and Management Data Base”) and handle related workflow operations.
The aim is to let the operators have full control of the assets used, knowing exactly composition, dislocation, functional relations and history.

5) HP UCMDB (Commercial) –

UCMDB is a CMDB software product produced by Hewlett Packard supporting ITIL Configuration Management and which features a Configuration Management Database, as well as a mechanism for the automatic discovery of IT infrastructure components, such as computers, network devices and composing relationships between them.

Thank you,
Arun

Cloud: Monitoring as a Service (MaaS)

Cloud: Monitoring as a Service (MaaS)

Introduction-

Cloud computing has been evolving into different technology areas such as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS). These technology areas are finding increasing adoption in the marketplace.

A recent report published by International Data Corporation (IDC) has indicated that the Cloud Computing market is expected to cross $70 billion in 2015. Ref- https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS25797415

The economic drivers for adoption of Cloud Technologies have been well understood in the market.

Lower Investments: Cloud offerings typically have very low upfront costs. All SaaS product offerings are charged on a pay per use monthly subscription basis, which implies lower cost of ownership.
No Infrastructure Costs: Cloud service offerings use cloud based infrastructures such as Amazon or Rackspace or a private cloud. Hence the customer does not have to bear the cost of the infrastructure setup with cloud services.
Outsourced Technology Expertise: With cloud offerings, customers get a ready to use product that can be immediately consumed by the end user. Customer does not need to invest in an in-house IT team having that particular technology expertise.
Simplified Management: With offerings in the cloud, the service provider deals with on-going management, maintenance and upgrades of technology. The customer can focus on his core business needs.

So Why I’m telling this story to you? As infrastructure engineer I believe that this is going to change how we do things in Traditional vs Could Infrastructure. Let us take example of “Monitoring”. Here in this blog, I’m going to talk about monitoring of Infrastructure and applications in Traditional vs Cloud. Adoption of “Cloud computing” is going to change they way we do monitoring of our servers and applications.

Monitoring as a Service (MaaS) in the Cloud! –

What does Monitoring-as-a-Service (MaaS) mean?
Monitoring-as-a-service (MaaS) is one of many cloud delivery models under anything as a service (XaaS). It is a framework that facilitates the deployment of monitoring functionalities for various other services and applications within the cloud. The most common application for MaaS is online state monitoring, which continuously tracks certain states of applications, networks, systems, instances or any element that may be deployable within the cloud. MaaS offerings consist of multiple tools and applications meant to monitor a certain aspect of an application, server, system or any other IT component. There is a need for proper data collection, especially of the performance and real-time statistics of IT components, in order to make proper and informed management possible.

IT infrastructure monitoring should an essential part of the IT Management Policy for an organization that is reliant on IT infrastructure. Proactive monitoring provides business continuity, quicker disaster recovery and easier capacity planning for all mission critical applications.

Monitoring as a Service (MaaS) in the Cloud is a concept that combines the benefits of cloud computing technology and traditional on-premise IT infrastructure monitoring solutions. MaaS is a new delivery model that is suited for organizations looking to adopt a monitoring framework quickly with minimal investments.

Traditional On-Premise Monitoring Framework-

On premise monitoring is the traditional deployment model for monitoring private networks (internal IT infrastructure). This has been a very effective model over the years and works well for organization that can afford to implement this monitoring framework. On-premise monitoring involves purchase of software tools and investing in monitoring infrastructure and skilled IT personnel.

On-Premise monitoring provides the following benefits:

In-House Monitoring Infrastructure:Customers can own the in-house infrastructure for monitoring. This implies more control over the infrastructure with regards to upgrades, maintenance and management
Higher Levels of Security:Since the monitoring infrastructure is located in-house, customer gets better security where the monitoring tool does not need to cross firewall domains and connect over the open internet.
Inherent Connectivity to Internal Assets:Monitoring infrastructure is already a part of the internal network (LAN and MPLS). Hence connecting to all the infrastructure assets is easy.
Real Time Monitoring Data:On-premise monitoring provides real-time data where alerts are generated and shown to the customer immediately. The monitoring dashboard and email servers are all within the customer premise and hence there are no delays.
Customization and Extensions:On-premise monitoring solutions can be heavily customized to meet the exact needs of a specific customer environment. This could be in the form of monitoring of custom applications or personalized dashboards and escalation matrices.
The Adoption of Cloud and Software as a Service Delivery Models

Monitoring as a Service Offering –

The monitoring as a service (MaaS) offering provides a monitoring solution based on a monitoring infrastructure in the cloud. The MaaS vendor invests in the monitoring framework including the hardware, monitoring software and specialized IT personnel on behalf of the customer. The customer just needs to pay for the service he wants to use – on a subscription model similar to any SaaS product offering.

Benefits of Monitoring as a Service (MaaS)

The following are the benefits of a monitoring as a service (MaaS) product:

    Ready to Use Monitoring Tool Login: The vendor takes care of setting up the hardware infrastructure, monitoring tool, configuration and alert settings on behalf of the customer. The customer gets a ready to use login to the monitoring dashboard that is accessible using an internet browser. A mobile client is also available for the MaaS dashboard for IT administrators.
    Inherently Available 24x7x365: Since MaaS is deployed in the cloud, the monitoring dashboard itself is available 24x7x365 that can be accessed anytime from anywhere. There are no downtimes associated with the monitoring tool.
Easy Integration with Business Processes: MaaS can generate alert based on specific business conditions. MaaS also supports multiple levels of escalation so that different user groups can get different levels of alerts.
Cloud Aware and Cloud Ready: Since MaaS is already in the cloud, MaaS works well with other cloud based products such as PaaS and SaaS. MaaS can monitor Amazon and Rackspace cloud infrastructure. MaaS can monitor any private cloud deployments that a customer might have.
Zero Maintenance Overheads: As a MaaS, customer, you don’t need to invest in a network operations centre. Neither do you need to invest an in-house team of qualified IT engineers to run the monitoring desk since the MaaS vendor is doing that on behalf of the customer.
    Price Sensitive Customers: For small and medium enterprises, MaaS provides cost effective pay per use pricing model. Customers don’t need to make any heavy investments neither in capital expenditures (capex) nor in operating expenditures (opex).

Monitoring as a service (MaaS) is an attractive choice for the following scenarios:

Cloud Based SaaS and PaaS offering Add-On: MaaS provides a better technology fit for monitoring cloud based SaaS and PaaS offerings. MaaS can be provided as an add-on product offering along with SaaS and PaaS.
Distributed Infrastructure Assets: In scenarios where the IT infrastructure assets are distributed across different locations and branch offices, MaaS is a good option since the monitoring infrastructure is centralized in the cloud and can easily monitor all distributed infrastructure assets.
Mixture of Cloud and On-Premise Infrastructure: MaaS is already in the cloud. Hence in deployments where customer has a mix of on-premise and cloud infrastructure, MaaS provides good monitoring options for the hybrid environment.
Multitenant Monitoring Requirements: For vendors offering multi-tenant functionality on their hosted services, MaaS provides a strong backend framework for monitoring the multi-tenant services and their availability.

Thank you,

Arun Bagul

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam – Great Son of India

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam – Great Son of India

Introduction

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam) was the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was great engineer,scienctist and Leader.

I pay tribute to him and May his soul rest in peace.

 

 

 

 

 

 

ॐ असतो मा सद्गमय ।
तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय ।
मृत्योर्मा अमृतं गमय ।
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥
Om Asato Maa Sad-Gamaya |
Tamaso Maa Jyotir-Gamaya |
Mrtyor-Maa Amrtam Gamaya |
Om Shaantih Shaantih Shaantih ||

 

Thank you,

Arun Bagul

Mangalyaan – India’s race for space success

Mangalyaan – India’s race for space success

Introduction-

Many many congratulations to ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) team for making Mangalyaan successful!. we are proud of you all!

 

Short story of Mangalyaan!-

India’s maiden mission to Mars, the Mangalyaan, has arrived in orbit after a 300-day marathon covering over 670 million kilometres.

“India will become the first Asian country to have achieved this and if it happens in the maiden attempt itself, India could become the first country in the world to have reached distant Mars on its own steam in the first attempt,” said Isro chairman K Radhakrishnan as it approached.

“We have gone beyond the boundaries of human enterprise” – Narendra Modi (PM. India)

Ref Links-  http://www.isro.org/mars/home.aspx

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_Orbiter_Mission

Thanks you,
Arun Bagul