To get started with your installation of ESXi5, insert the ESXi5 disc into your server and start it up.
In Figure 1 below, you’ll see the first screen that greets you when you start your server. From this menu, choose the first option to start the ESXi 5 installer.
Figure 1: ESXi 5 boot menu
Once you choose the installation option, the installer provides you with a window that details the status of each file that needs to be loaded. Figure 2 shows you this screen. After that, you’re greeted with a familiar screen that shows you some information about your server, including the processor type and system RAM. The target machine for my sample installation is a virtual machine running on my laptop, hence the relatively minimal hardware configuration. You can see this screen in Figure 3.
Figure 3:Yet another boot screen!
With the preliminaries out of the way, the ESXi 5 installer truly kicks off with a welcome screen containing information regarding VMware’s Compatibility Guide. To continue with the installation process, press Enter.
Of course, no installation would be complete without having to accept an end user license agreement. To accept the agreement as a part of the installer, press F11. If you don’t accept the agreement, press Escape to abort the installation. You can see this screen in Figure 5.
Figure 5: ESXi 5 end user license agreement
A location to which to install ESXi 5 is the first technical decision you have to make. In Figure 6 below, you can see that I have a single 40 GB volume from which to choose as an install location on my machine.
Next up, choose your keyboard layout as US Default.
The root password on your ESXi 5 system is the key to your virtual kingdom, so choose with care. Make sure you provide a strong password. As you can see in figure 7, you have to provide the password twice to make sure you don’t include any typos.
Figure 7: Provide a password for the root user account
The ESXi installer now scans your system to get additional information.
Once you initiate the installation, your selected disk will be repartitioned. Throughout the process, the installer provides you with an installation status like the one shown in Figure 9.
Figure 9: Installation status
To access virtual disks, a virtual machine uses virtual SCSI controllers. Each virtual disk that a virtual machine can access through one of the virtual SCSI controllers resides in the VMFS datastore, NFS-based datastore, or on a raw disk. The choice of SCSI controller does not affect whether your virtual disk is an IDE or SCSI disk.
Following virtual SCSI controllers commonly used…
– This was one of the first emulated vSCSI controllers available in the VMware platform.
– No updates and considered as legacy or for backward compatibility…
B) LSI Logic Parallel
– This was the other emulated vSCSI controller available originally in the VMware platform.
– Most operating systems had a driver that supported a queue depth of 32 and it became a very common choice, if not the default
– Default for Windows 2003/Vista and Linux
C) LSI Logic SAS
– This is an evolution of the parallel driver to support a new future facing standard.
– It began to grown popularity when Microsoft required its use for MCSC within Windows 2008 ore newer.
– Default for Windows 2008 or newer
– Linux guests SCSI disk hotplug works better with LSI Logic SAS
– Personally I use this
D) VMware Paravirtual (aka PVSCSI)
– This vSCSI controller is virtualization aware and was been designed to support very high throughput with minimal processing cost and is therefore the most efficient driver.
– In the past, there were issues if it was used with virtual machines that didn’t do a lot of IOPS, but that was resolved in vSphere 4.1.
* PVSCSI and LSI Logic Parallel/SAS are essentially the same when it comes to overall performance capability.
* Total of 4 vSCSI adapters are supported per virtual machine. To provide the best performance, one should also distribute virtual disk across as many vSCSI adapters as possible
* Why not IDE? – IDE adapter completes one command at a time while SCSI can queue commands. So SCSI adapter is better optimized for parallel performance. Also Maximum of 4 IDE Devices per VM (includes CDROM) but SCSI allows 60 devices.
NIC types available for VM are depends on VM Hardware version and Guest OS (Operating System). When you configure a virtual machine, you can add network adapters (NICs) and specify the adapter type…
The following NIC types widely used:
Emulated version of the Intel 82545EM Gigabit Ethernet NIC, with drivers available in most newer guest operating systems, including Windows XP and later and Linux versions 2.4.19 and later.
E1000e – This feature emulates a newer model of Intel Gigabit NIC (number 82574) in the virtual hardware. This is known as the “e1000e” vNIC. e1000e is available only on hardware version 8 (and newer) virtual machines in vSphere.
VMXNET2 (Enhanced) –
Optimized for performance in a virtual machine and has no physical counterpart. Because operating system vendors do not provide built-in drivers for this card, you must install VMware Tools to have a driver for the VMXNET network adapter available.
Based on the VMXNET adapter but provides high-performance features commonly used on modern networks, such as jumbo frames and hardware offloads. VMXNET 2 (Enhanced) is available only for some guest operating systems on ESX/ESXi 3.5 and later.
Next generation of a paravirtualized NIC designed for performance. VMXNET 3 offers all the features available in VMXNET 2 and adds several new features, such as multiqueue support (also known as Receive Side Scaling in Windows), IPv6 offloads, and MSI/MSI-X interrupt delivery. VMXNET 3 is not related to VMXNET or VMXNET 2.
– VMXNET 3 is supported only for virtual machines version 7 and later.
– Support 10Gpbs ie 10Gig Network
– Jumbo frame supported
I would suggest to use “VMXNET3”
Unable to extend VM disk from Vcenter Console… Option gred out
Reason: When Ever you want to perform VM disk extend make sure all snapshpt are deleted for that particular VM.
When you create VM (Virtual Machine) in VMWare based Virtualization platform. VMware creates few VM configuration files in folder with VM name in Datastore (Local Storage or NFS/SAN). Please find the table which describes files types in vmware…
|File||Usage||File Description||File Format|
|.vmx||.vmname.vmx||Virtual machine configuration file.||ASCII|
|.vmxf||vmname.vmxf||Additional virtual machine configuration files, available, for example, with teamed virtual machines.||ASCII|
|.vmdk||vmname.vmdk||Virtual disk file.||ASCII|
|.flat.vmdk||vmname.flat.vmdk||Preallocated virtual disk in binary format.||Binary|
|.nvram||vmname.nvram or nvram||Non-volatile RAM. Stores virtual machine BIOS information.|
|.vmss||vmname.vmss||Virtual machine suspend file.|
|.log||vmware.log||Virtual machine log file.||ASCII|
|#.log||vmware-#.log||Old virtual machine log files. # is a number starting with 1.||ASCII|
Sometime we need to login to Esxi server to check hardware/networking and performance/stats. Sharing few important ESXi commands..
a) ESXi NIC List
~ # esxcfg-nics --list Name PCI Driver Link Speed Duplex MAC Address MTU Description vmnic0 0000:01:00.00 tg3 Up 1000Mbps Full XX:10:55:DD:CC:XX 1500 Broadcom BCM5720 Gigabit Ethernet vmnic1 0000:01:00.01 tg3 Up 1000Mbps Full XX:10:55:67:CC:XX 1500 Broadcom BCM5720 Gigabit Ethernet vmnic2 0000:02:00.00 tg3 Up 1000Mbps Full XX:10:55:65:CC:YY 1500 Broadcom BCM5720 Gigabit Ethernet vmnic3 0000:02:00.01 tg3 Up 1000Mbps Full XX:10:55:23:CC:00 1500 Broadcom BCM5720 Gigabit Ethernet ~ #
~ # esxcli network ip interface list vmk0 Name: vmk0 MAC Address: 24:b6:fd:XX:XX:YY Enabled: true Portset: vSwitch0 Portgroup: Management Network VDS Name: N/A VDS UUID: N/A VDS Port: N/A VDS Connection: -1 MTU: 1500 TSO MSS: 65535 Port ID: 33554438
b) ESXi Storage/iSCSI stats
~# esxcli storage san iscsi stats get Adapter: vmhba34 Total Number of Sessions: 20 Total Number of Connections: 20 IO Data Sent: 2647449088 IO Data Received: 107921345640 Command PDUs: 15509582 Read Command PDUs: 12353055 Write Command PDUs: 3156497 Bidirectional Command PDUs: 0 No-data Command PDUs: 30 Response PDUs: 15509582 R2T PDUs: 0 Data-in PDUs: 0 Data-out PDUs: 0 Task Mgmt Request PDUs: 0 Task Mgmt Response PDUs: 0 Login Request PDUs: 20 Login Response PDUs: 20 Text Request PDUs: 0 Text Response PDUs: 0 Logout Request PDUs: 0 Logout Response PDUs: 0 NOP-Out PDUs: 1767885 NOP-In PDUs: 1767885 Async Event PDUs: 0 SNACK PDUs: 0 Reject PDUs: 0 Digest Errors: 0 Timeouts: 0 No Tx Buf Count: 0 No Rx Data Count: 232170 ~ #
c) ESXi ping-
Check connectivity to storage, jumbo frame etc
~ # vmkping -c 5 -s 8972 192.168.7.243 PING 192.168.7.243 (192.168.7.243): 8972 data bytes 8980 bytes from 192.168.7.243: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=2.104 ms 8980 bytes from 192.168.7.243: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.693 ms 8980 bytes from 192.168.7.243: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.541 ms
d) VMKernel VMNIC and Check connectivity with VMKernel Port
~ # esxcfg-vmknic --list Interface Port Group/DVPort IP Family IP Address Netmask Broadcast MAC Address MTU TSO MSS Enabled Type vmk0 Management Network IPv4 192.168.7.5 255.255.252.0 192.168.7.255 XX:10:55:23:CC:00 1500 65535 true STATIC vmk1 iSCSI Kernel 1 IPv4 192.168.7.55 255.255.252.0 192.168.7.255 XX:10:XX:23:CC:YY 1500 65535 true STATIC vmk2 iSCSI Kernel 2 IPv4 192.168.7.155 255.255.252.0 192.168.7.255 00:50:56:XX:65:ZZ 1500 65535 true STATIC ~ # vmkping -c 5 -s 8972 -I vmk1 192.168.7.243 PING 192.168.7.243 (192.168.7.243): 8972 data bytes 8980 bytes from 192.168.7.243: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=0.747 ms 8980 bytes from 192.168.7.243: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.481 ms 8980 bytes from 192.168.7.243: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.523 ms 8980 bytes from 192.168.7.243: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.615 ms 8980 bytes from 192.168.7.243: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.504 ms --- 192.168.7.243 ping statistics --- 5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max = 0.481/0.574/0.747 ms ~ #
e) vSwitch list
~ # esxcfg-vswitch --list Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks vSwitch0 128 47 128 1500 vmnic0,vmnic1 PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks NFS 188 0 vmnic0,vmnic1 DMZ 192.168.X.0/24 1103 13 vmnic0,vmnic1 DMZ 192.168.Y.0/22 1102 22 vmnic0,vmnic1 DMZ 192.168.X.0/24 1101 8 vmnic0,vmnic1 Management Network 1102 1 vmnic0,vmnic1 Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks vSwitch1 128 3 128 1500 vmnic2 PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks iSCSI Kernel 1 0 1 vmnic2 Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks vSwitch2 128 3 128 1500 vmnic3 PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks iSCSI Kernel 2 0 1 vmnic3 ~ #
Last month, while working on ESXi5.1 disconnect issue. we analyzed esxi logs for past 3/4 months. Just sharing information related to ESXi log rotation policy..
/var/log # esxcli system syslog config get Default Rotation Size: 1024 Default Rotations: 8 Log Output: /scratch/log Log To Unique Subdirectory: false Remote Host: <none> /var/log # cd /scratch/log /vmfs/volumes/507a011b-acd45a80-9aed-e0db5501b632/log #