Tag: UNIX/Linux

What’s new in GRUB-2?

What’s new in GRUB-2?

Introduction ~ GRUB is perfect boot loader for Linux/Unix system! GRUB-2 supports several features that are important for every system admin.

* Platform support – GRUB 2 is intended to work across a wider range of architectures.
* Partition tables – GRUB-2 supports MBR partitioning scheme and GUID Partition Table (GPT).
* RAID and LVM – Now GRUB is supports both redundant array of independent disks (RAID) and Logical Volume Manager (LVM).
* File system support – GRUB 2 supports some additional non-Linux file systems, such as Apple’s Hierarchical File System Plus, NTFS  and  ZFS file systems…

* Configuring GRUB 2 –

GRUB 2 configuration file is different from legacy GRUB….

The default location for the GRUB 2 configuration file is /boot/grub/grub.cfg

* Sample GRUB 2 configuration file

root@me:~# cat /boot/grub/grub.cfg

set timeout=10
set default=0

menuentry “Ubuntu, Linux 2.6.31-20-generic” {
set quiet=1
insmod ext2
set root=(hd0,6)
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set 7699852c-2a04-4da2-82e8-a69969f16bf2
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.31-20-generic root=UUID=7699852c-2a04-4da2-82e8-a69969f16bf2 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.31-20-generic
}

Thanks,
Arun Bagul

How to install Network Driver in Linux system

How to install Network Driver in Linux system

Introduction –

“Attansic Technology Corp. L1 Gigabit Ethernet Adapte” network (NIC) card or Adapter was not detected by RHEL4 (redhat) system. I tried running kudzu and other commands to detect device, but no use. So finally I have to install drivers for my network card…

Step 1] Device status (network card) –

* See below device status from hardware conf file ~ “/etc/sysconfig/hwconf”
* Attansic Technology Corp. L1 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter  not detected – Unknown device 8226

03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Attansic Technology Corp. L1 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter (rev b0)
Subsystem: ASUSTeK Computer Inc.: Unknown device 8226
Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR+ FastB2B-
Status: Cap+ 66Mhz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR+ <PERR-
Latency: 0, Cache Line Size 10
Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 201

…..

[root@desktop ~]# lspci

03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Attansic Technology Corp. L1 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter (rev b0)

…..
[root@desktop ~]# lspci -n

03:00.0 Class 0200: 1969:1048 (rev b0)

…..
[root@desktop ~]#

* Make sure to download drivers for above  venderID & deviceId “1969:1048″….

Step 2] download and extract the source  –

First, download vendor* driver from here

ftp://ftp.hogchain.net/pub/linux/attansic/vendor_driver/l1-linux-v1.2.40.3.tar.gz

OR
open-source (http://atl1.sourceforge.net/)

[root@desktop ~]# tar xvfz l1-linux-v1.2.40.3.tar.gz

[root@desktop ~]# cd  l1-linux-v1.2.40.3

[root@desktop src]# ls
at_ethtool.c  at.h  at_hw.c  at_hw.h  at_main.c  at_osdep.h  at_param.c  kcompat.c  kcompat_ethtool.c  kcompat.h  Makefile
[root@desktop src]#

* Now compile and install the drivers

[root@desktop src]# make
make -C /lib/modules/2.6.9-78.ELsmp/build SUBDIRS=/root/l1-linux-v1.2.40.3/src modules
make[1]: Entering directory `/usr/src/kernels/2.6.9-78.EL-smp-i686′

…..
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/kernels/2.6.9-78.EL-smp-i686′
[root@desktop src]# echo $?
0

[root@desktop src]# make install
make -C /lib/modules/2.6.9-78.ELsmp/build SUBDIRS=/root/l1-linux-v1.2.40.3/src modules

…..
man -c -P’cat > /dev/null’ atl1 || true
[root@desktop src]# echo $?
0

* Now load the kernel module….

[root@desktop src]# modprobe   atl1

Step 3] Now verify whether kernel driver is working or not  –

[root@desktop src]# modinfo   atl1
filename:       /lib/modules/2.6.9-78.ELsmp/kernel/drivers/net/atl1/atl1.ko
author:         Atheros Corporation, <xiong.huang@atheros.com>
description:    Atheros 1000M Ethernet Network Driver
license:        GPL
version:        1.2.40.3 1FC4E58EBDF31F49BFD33E8
parm:           TxDescriptors:Number of transmit descriptors
parm:           RxDescriptors:Number of receive descriptors
parm:           MediaType:MediaType Select
parm:           IntModTimer:Interrupt Moderator Timer
parm:           FlashVendor:SPI Flash Vendor
vermagic:       2.6.9-78.ELsmp SMP 686 REGPARM 4KSTACKS gcc-3.4
depends:
alias:          pci:v00001969d00001048sv*sd*bc*sc*i*
[root@desktop src]#

[root@desktop src]# netconfig
[root@desktop src]# ifconfig
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:AD:54:0A:XX:WW
inet addr:192.168.0.2  Bcast:192.168.0.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::223:54ff:fe0a:616b/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:7 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:0 (0.0 b)  TX bytes:498 (498.0 b)
Memory:feac0000-feb00000

…..

[root@desktop src]#

[root@desktop ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/hwconf

class: NETWORK
bus: PCI
detached: 0
device: eth0
driver: atl1
desc: “Attansic Technology Corp. L1 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter”
network.hwaddr: 00:AD:54:0A:XX:WW
vendorId: 1969
deviceId: 1048

subVendorId: 1043
subDeviceId: 8226
pciType: 1
pcidom:    0
pcibus:  3
pcidev:  0
pcifn:  0
[root@desktop ~]#

Enjoy,
Arun Bagul

How to configure vpn client on Linux

How to configure vpn client on Linux

This has been tested under RHEL 4/5, CentOS 4.4/5 and fedora 8 (kernel version 2.6.15+)

I found and stored few required rpm packages from various places that you will download from given.

http://www.4shared.com/file/113579629/ee5e0aed/libglade-017-11i386.html
http://www.4shared.com/file/113579642/2fd674e3/libglade-devel-017-11i386.html
http://www.4shared.com/file/113579654/dfaee097/libxml-1817-8i386.html
http://www.4shared.com/file/113579677/7491d3af/libxml-devel-1817-8i386.html
http://www.4shared.com/file/113579714/ba004fa4/php4-pcntl-449-1fc5i386.html
http://www.4shared.com/file/113579747/5e7eea5b/php4-pcntl-gtk-102-4fc5i386.html
http://www.4shared.com/file/113579758/d7dac68b/pptp-172-3fc5i386.html
http://www.4shared.com/file/113579764/f541d963/pptpconfig-20060821-1fc5noarch.html

After downloading these first you will have to install lib packages and then pptp packages

rpm -ivh –nodeps libglade-0.17-11.i386.rpm libglade-devel-0.17-11.i386.rpm  libxml-1.8.17-8.i386.rpm libxml-devel-1.8.17-8.i386.rpm

rpm -ivh pptp-1.7.2-3.fc5.i386.rpm pptpconfig-20060821-1.fc5.noarch.rpm php4-pcntl-gtk-1.0.2-4.fc5.i386.rpm php4-pcntl-4.4.9-1.fc5.i386.rpm

now go to the given image that I would like to show how I added vpn connection

1) open vpnclient configuration launchpad with “pptpconfig”

2)  Now create your profile with all the details and add

Now you have to set you external route or tunnel IP range into it for that click on “Routing” and set  “All to Tunnel” and update your profile.

Now start your vpn client.

–Ravi

Automate script for hp_ltt with read option

Automate script for hp_ltt with read option

Hello Friends,

Many days back, I have configured this storageworks devices of HP and nowadays one of my friend is having like the same issue’s with the os’s to configuring HP storageworks, he has been doing manual driver scan with hp_ltt tool every time when system has been rebooted. Actually there some thing missing with os’s but still this scripts work for him now.

#!/usr/bin/expect  —
# This expect script is useful and working with driver Diagnostic automated tool
# I have tested this over “HP StorageWorks Library and Tape Tools”
# Please change the option number 10 for rescan as per mention in your hp_ltt script.
# Some older hp_ltt script it has option number 9, so please check once this option.
# If you have any queries about this script please send email on ravi <at> indiangnu <dot> org
set timeout -1
spawn ./hp_ltt
match_max 100000
send — “r”
# Look for prompt
expect “ommand>”
# Send option 1 for hardware scan
send — “1r”
send — “r”
# Look for  prompt
expect “ommand>”
# Send option 3 for continue
send — “3r”
send — “r”
# Look for prompt
expect “ommand>”
# send option 10 for rescan
send — “10r”
send — “r”
# Look for prompt
expect “ommand>”
# Send 1 (exit) from L & TT
send — “1r”
send — “r”
expect eof

Suggestion : You have to run this expect script under the $HOME folder of hp_ltt script.

–Ravi

openLSM + Cherokee

openLSM + Cherokee

Dear All,

We are pleased to announce that tomorrow we are launching openslm-0.99 development platform. We are sure that  all contributor’s of openlsm and IndianGNU.org community will start coding for openlsm…

* Please don’t forget to test openlsm and give your valuable feedback/suggestion!

openlsm + Cherokee –

After all ups and  down finally openLSM community has decided to use Cherokee for openlsm admin server. We have customized Cherokee as per your requirement.

Thank you,
openLSM and IndianGNU.org

How to convert nero image to iso image and extract iso image

How to convert nero image to iso image and extract iso image

Introduction –

nrg2iso is handy tool to convert Nero Image to ISO image

* How to install nrg2iso on Ubuntu Linux –

root@arun:~# apt-get  install   nrg2iso
root@arun:~/oracle-setup# nrg2iso -h
Nrg2Iso v0.4 by G. Kokanosky
released under the GNU GPL v2 or later

Usage :
nrg2iso image.nrg   image.iso

–version    display version number
–help       display this notice

root@arun:~/oracle-setup#

* How to use it ? –

root@arun:~/oracle-setup# ls
ora92linux.nrg
root@arun:~/oracle-setup#

root@arun:~/oracle-setup# nrg2iso ora92linux.nrg  ora92linux.iso
|==============================>[100%]
ora92linux.iso written : 680659100 bytes
root@arun:~/oracle-setup#

root@arun:~/oracle-setup# ls *.iso
ora92linux.iso
root@arun:~/oracle-setup#

* Now ISO image is ready, we can mount ISO image to extract the data as shown below….
root@arun:~/oracle-setup# mount -o loop  ora92linux.iso   /tmp/mount-iso/
root@arun:~/oracle-setup#

root@arun:~/oracle-setup# cd  /tmp/mount-iso/
root@arun:/tmp/mount-iso# ls
doc  index.htm  install  lgto  response  runInstaller  stage
root@arun:/tmp/mount-iso#

root@arun:/tmp/mount-iso# ls
doc  index.htm  install  lgto  response  runInstaller  stage

* Enjoy!! – you can copy the extracted data where ever you want!!

root@arun:/tmp/mount-iso# cp -fr * /root/oracle-setup/oracle-1/
root@arun:/tmp/mount-iso#

root@arun:~/oracle-setup# mount
/root/oracle-setup/ora92linux2.iso  on  /tmp/mount-iso type iso9660 (rw,loop=/dev/loop0)
root@arun:~/oracle-setup#

* Un-mount to ISO image –

root@arun:/tmp/mount-iso# cd  /
root@arun:/# umount /tmp/mount-iso/
root@arun:/#

Thank you,

Arun Bagul

Oracle DB 10.2g installation on Ubuntu Linux

Oracle DB 10.2g installation on Ubuntu Linux

Introduction –

Oracle Database is widely used commercial Database on Unix/Linux and Windows platform….
This article explain the step by step installation of Oracle 10g Release 2.0 on Ubuntu 8.04111!!
Please refer the Oracle installation guide for System requirement…

1] Hardware requirement –

RAM – minimum 1024 MB of physical memory
Disk space -1.5 GB  to 3.5 GB of disk space, depends on the installation…
Minimum 400 MB of disk space in the /tmp directory

arunsb@arun:~$ free  -m
arunsb@arun:~$ df -h
arunsb@arun:~$ df -h /tmp

2] Software dependency –

Make sure that following packages are installed on your system!!

make-3.8
gcc-4.2
libdb4.2
libdb4.2++-dev
libstdc++6
libstdc++6-4.2-dev
libmotif-dev
libmotif3

root@arun:~# apt-get install  build-essential libc6-dev  libmotif-dev  libmotif3
root@arun:~# apt-get install  xauth libxp6 libxt6 libxtst6 libaio1  glibc-source
root@arun:~# apt-get install  rpm

root@arun:~# ln -s /usr/bin/awk   /bin/awk
root@arun:~# ln -s /usr/bin/basename     /bin/basename
root@arun:~# ln -s /usr/bin/rpm    /bin/rpm

root@arun:~# dpkg -l

3] Operating System Groups and Users for Oracle –

* oinstall – Oracle Inventory group
* dba       – The OS DBA group
* oracle   – Oracle software owner  (in mycase arunsb is oracle user)

root@arun:~# id oracle
id: oracle: No such user
root@arun:~#
root@arun:~# grep oinstall /etc/group
root@arun:~# grep dba  /etc/group

NOTE – “oinstall” should be primary group of oracle user. It is not necessary to use “oracle” as username, you can name but make sure that the “oinstall” is primary group of that user!!

root@arun:~# addgroup oinstall
Adding group ‘oinstall’ (GID 1001) …
Done.
root@arun:~#

root@arun:~# addgroup  dba
Adding group `dba’ (GID 1002) …
Done.
root@arun:~#

root@arun:~# addgroup nobody
Adding group `nobody’ (GID 1000) …
Done.
root@arun:~#

root@arun:~# useradd -g oinstall -G dba   arunsb
root@arun:~#

root@arun:~# id arunsb
uid=1000(arunsb) gid=1001(oinstall) groups=1001(oinstall),1002(dba)
root@arun:~#

*** other setting –

root@arun:~# echo “Red Hat Linux release 3.0 (drupal)” > /etc/redhat-release

root@arun:~# cat /etc/redhat-release
Red Hat Linux release 3.0 (drupal)
root@arun:~#

4] Configure Kernel Parameters –

Add following kernel variable value as shown below in sysctl.conf file, then run command “sysctl -p” to update the setting…
root@arun:~# tail -n 16  /etc/sysctl.conf
###############################
## Adding setting for oracle 10g

kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
fs.file-max = 65536
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.core.rmem_default = 1048576
net.core.rmem_max = 1048576
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 262144

##############################
root@arun:~#

* Use below command to set above kernel variables…

root@arun:~# sysctl -p

5] Oracle user profile and envirnoment –

Update /etc/security/limits.conf file as shown below….

root@arun:~# vi /etc/security/limits.conf
root@arun:~# tail  /etc/security/limits.conf
#######################
## Added for arunsb (oracle user)

arunsb soft nproc 2047
arunsb hard nproc 16384
arunsb soft nofile 1024
arunsb hard nofile 65536

#######################
#
root@arun:~#

Add following setting in /etc/pam.d/login file
root@arun:~# vi /etc/pam.d/login

###################################
# oracle user –
session    required   pam_limits.so
###################################

** set envirnoment variables in user profile file “/home/arunsb/.bashrc”  as shown below

arunsb@arun:~$ tail  /home/arunsb/.bashrc
###########################
# Setting for Oracle 10g
export DISPLAY=”:0.0″
export ORACLE_OWNER=arunsb
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app
export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/product/10.2.0/db_1
export ORACLE_HOSTNAME=arun.mylaptop.com
PATH=$PATH:/u01/app/product/10.2.0/db_1/bin

##########################
#
arunsb@arun:~$

6] Oracle inventory and installation setting –

you need to create oralce Inventory director where Oracle stores all information about oralce software installed on your system. Also use same direcory
for oracle installation make sure to set proper path in  user profile file ie .barshrc

root@arun:~# mkdir -p  /u01/app/oraInventory
root@arun:~# ls -ld /u01/app/oraInventory
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2008-11-23 22:57 /u01/app/oraInventory
root@arun:~# chown arunsb:oinstall -R /u01/app/oraInventory
root@arun:~# ls -ld /u01/app/oraInventory
drwxr-xr-x 2 arunsb oinstall 4096 2008-11-23 22:57 /u01/app/oraInventory
root@arun:~#

arunsb@arun:~$ mkdir -p /u01/app/product/10.2.0/db_1

7] It’s  time to install Oracle –

arunsb@arun:/root/oracle-setup/oracle_server-10g$ ./runInstaller
Starting Oracle Universal Installer…

In between installation you need to run following shell scripts as root user…..

root@arun:~# /u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
Changing permissions of /u01/app/oraInventory to 770.
Changing groupname of /u01/app/oraInventory to oinstall.
The execution of the script is complete
root@arun:~# /u01/app/product/10.2.0/db_1/root.sh
Running Oracle10 root.sh script…

The following environment variables are set as:
ORACLE_OWNER= arunsb
ORACLE_HOME=  /u01/app/product/10.2.0/db_1

Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]:
Copying dbhome to /usr/local/bin …
Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin …
Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin …
Creating /etc/oratab file…
Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by
Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created
Finished running generic part of root.sh script.
Now product-specific root actions will be performed.
root@arun:~#

8] Errors during installation –

NOTE – Installation failed many times with following ERRORs … please don’t forget to create soft link for awk , basename , rpm

Exception Name: MakefileException
Exception String: Error in invoking target ‘ntcontab.o’ of makefile

Exception Name: MakefileException
Exception String: Error in invoking target ‘utilities ctx_on’ of makefile

=================================================
The following J2EE Applications have been deployed and are accessible at the URLs listed below.

iSQL*Plus URL:
http://arun.mylaptop.com:5560/isqlplus
iSQL*Plus DBA URL:
http://arun.mylaptop.com:5560/isqlplus/dba
Oracle Enterprise manager URL
http://arun.mylaptop.com:5560/isqlplus/dba
=================================================

Thank you,
Arun Bagul