Category: General information

General information

How to Test Network performance and Bandwidth

How to Test Network performance and Bandwidth

Introduction –

Network latency
and Bandwidth are the two metrics most likely to be of interest when you benchmark a network. Even though most service and product advertising focuses on bandwidth, at times the latency can be a more important metric.

** What is Bandwidth?

Bandwidth (BW) in computer networking refers to the data rate supported by a network connection or interface. BW is measured in terms of bits per second (bps).

** What is Network latency?

Latency is a measure of time delay experienced in a system. Network latency is simply defined as the time delay observed as data transmits from one point to another. There are a number of factors that contribute to network latency. These include transmission(medium of connectivity), Distance, Routers and computer hardware delays.

List of Projects used to test Network performance and Bandwidth –

1) bmon – Bandwidth monitor and rate estimator, it is console based,live BW
2) bwbar – Bandwidth usage in Text and Graphical format
3) bwm-ng – Bandwidth Monitor NG (Next Generation, live BW, console based
4) dstat – Dstat is a replacement for vmstat, iostat and ifstat.
5) iftop – Bandwidth usage on an interface, console based
6) iperf – Perform Network throughput tests bet two host
7) ifstat – Report InterFace STATistics
8) cbm – Color Bandwidth Meter ,console based
9) etherape – Graphical network traffic browser
10) iptraf – Interactive Colorful IP LAN Monitor, console and GUI based
11) netmrg – It is daemon based, mySQL support, Gathers data from devices.
12) nuttcp – Network performance measurement tool
13) nepim – network performance

NOTE ~ For some of them rpm or deb packages are not available!

Step 1] How to install on Redhat/RHCE,CentOS based system and Dibian based system –

root@me:~# yum install netperf iperf nuttcp nepim lmbench

** Ubuntu –

root@me:~# apt-get install  bmon bwbar bwm-ng dstat cbm etherape iftop iperf ifstat iptraf netmrg

Step 2] How to use – bmon, bwm-ng, dstat, ifstat –

root@me:~# bmon
interface: lo at me.arun.host
#   Interface                RX Rate         RX #     TX Rate         TX #
────────────────────────────────────────
me.arun.host (source: local)
0   lo                         0.00B            0       0.00B            0
1   eth0                       0.00B            0       0.00B            0
2   eth2                       0.00B            0       0.00B            0
3   vboxnet0                   0.00B            0       0.00B            0
4   pan0                       0.00B            0       0.00B            0
5   ppp0                      69.39KiB         61       7.49KiB         44

root@me:~# bwm-ng

bwm-ng v0.6 (probing every 0.500s), press ‘h’ for help
input: /proc/net/dev type: rate
\         iface                   Rx                   Tx                Total
==============================================================================
lo:           0.00 KB/s            0.00 KB/s            0.00 KB/s
eth0:           0.00 KB/s            0.00 KB/s            0.00 KB/s
eth2:           0.00 KB/s            0.00 KB/s            0.00 KB/s
ppp0:          64.39 KB/s            7.92 KB/s           72.31 KB/s
——————————————————————————
total:          64.39 KB/s            7.92 KB/s           72.31 KB/s

root@me:~# dstat
—-total-cpu-usage—- -dsk/total- -net/total- —paging– —system–
usr sys idl wai hiq siq| read  writ| recv  send|  in   out | int   csw
7   4  85   4   0   0| 281k  110k|   0     0 |   0     0 | 865  3013
8   4  88   0   0   0|   0     0 |7027B 1261B|   0     0 | 956  4505
8   5  86   0   0   0|   0     0 |  14k 1867B|   0     0 |1144  3332
9   5  86   0   1   0|   0     0 |  79k 2496B|   0     0 |1360  3366
18   8  74   0   0   0|   0     0 |  52k 6511B|   0     0 |1299  3618
8   6  85   0   1   0|   0     0 |  35k 5339B|   0     0 |1094  4231
6   4  90   0   0   0|   0     0 |   0  3164B|   0     0 | 953  2750 ^C
root@me:~#

root@me:~# ifstat
eth0                eth2                ppp0
KB/s in  KB/s out   KB/s in  KB/s out   KB/s in  KB/s out
0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00     95.73      4.31
0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00     67.93      8.17
0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00    106.77     13.70

** start “iperf” server on one host(A) and client on another host(B)- to measure Network throughput between two hosts.

* Host -A

root@me:~# iperf -s
————————————————————
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 85.3 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[  4] local 192.168.0.1 port 5001 connected with 192.168.0.2 port 56171
[ ID] Interval       Transfer     Bandwidth
[  4]  0.0-10.0 sec  9.11 GBytes  7.82 Gbits/sec

* Host -B
test@hostB:~$ iperf -c 192.168.0.1
————————————————————
Client connecting to 192.168.0.1, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 49.5 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[  3] local 192.168.0.2 port 56171 connected with 192.168.0.1 port 5001
[ ID] Interval       Transfer     Bandwidth
[  3]  0.0-10.0 sec  9.11 GBytes  7.82 Gbits/sec
test@hostB:~$

root@me:~# iftop
root@me:~# cbm

Thank you,
Arun Bagul

How to change Xsplash theme in Ubuntu

How to change Xsplash theme in Ubuntu

Introduction –

Xsplash is the theme which you will see during ubuntu booting process!

Step 1] Go to the directory – “/usr/share/images/xsplash”

root@me:~# cd /usr/share/images/xsplash
root@me:/usr/share/images/xsplash#

*** Take backup of original theme –

root@me:/usr/share/images/xsplash# cp -fr /usr/share/images/xsplash/ /usr/share/images/xsplash-original

Step 2] Download Xsplash themes –

URL – “http://gnome-look.org/content/show.php/Fusion-GX-v00+%5B200911-21%5D?content=115833” OR “http://espiralx.org/05-Compartir/09-Gnome.html

Step 3] Copy this theme files to /usr/share/images/xsplash/ directory and check the xsplash using ‘xsplash’ command.

root@me:~# xsplash

Thank you,
Arun Bagul

How to install GNOME themes in Ubuntu

How to install GNOME themes in Ubuntu

Introduction – There are many beautiful GNOME desktop themes available for Ubuntu and other linux….

Step 1] Add repository –

root@me:~# add-apt-repository ppa:bisigi/ppa

*** Add following two lines in “/etc/apt/sources.list” file.

root@me:~# vi  /etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/bisigi/ppa/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/bisigi/ppa/ubuntu karmic main

Step 2] Add the gpg key of repository –

root@me:~# gpg –keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:11371 –recv-key 881574DE && gpg -a –export 881574DE | apt-key add –

Step 3] Update the repo list and install the themes….

root@me:~# apt-get update

* To install all available themes plz run  this command….

root@me:~# apt-get install bisigi-themes

* To install indivisual themes.. (few best themes)

root@me:~# apt-get install showtime-theme

root@me:~# apt-get install balanzan-theme
root@me:~# apt-get install infinity-theme
root@me:~# apt-get install wild-shine-theme
root@me:~# apt-get install tropical-theme
root@me:~# apt-get install ubuntu-sunrise-theme
root@me:~# apt-get install aquadreams-theme

Step 4] How to activate/select theme.

Go to “System” –> “Preferences” –> “Appearance”  and select  your theme!!

** Enjoy

Thank you,
Arun Bagul

Encrypt your mails with GPG and Enigmail Thunderbird plugin

Encrypt your mails with GPG and Enigmail Thunderbird plugin

Introduction ~

GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG or GPG) is open source/free software encryption and signing tool, alternative to the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) suite of cryptographic software. Enigmail is an extension for Mozilla Thunderbird and other Mozilla applications. It provides public key e-mail encryption. Actual cryptographic functionality is handled by GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG,GPG).

Step 1] Install Gnupg or GPG –

* Ubuntu/Debian ~

root@arun:~# apt-get  install gnupg  gnupg2

* Redhat/Fedora ~

root@arun:~# yum  install gnupg  gnupg2

Step 2] How to Install Enigmail ?

I assume that Mozilla Thunderbird is already installed on your system. To install  “Enigmail” follow following steps

a) Download “Enigmail” from  url “http://enigmail.mozdev.org/download/

Note ~ select OS and Thunderbird version properly.

b) In menu bar of the main Thunderbird window you will see “Tools”. Select this, and then “Add-ons” option. This will bring up a new window listing all of your Thunderbird plug-ins. In the lower left-hand corner of this new window you’ll see a button marked “Install”. Click this button. Tell  Thunderbird where you saved the Enigmail .XPI file. and just say “Install” that’s it!!

* Once ‘Enigmail’ is installed restart the Thunderbird. Then you will see “OpenPGP” tab in main menu of Thunderbird.

Step 3] Setup private/public key ~

Enigmail uses public key cryptography to ensure privacy between you and your correspondents. To generate the public/private keys, there is two methods either generate them with the help of “gpg” command line tool or use “enigmail”….

* We will generate private/public cryptographic keys with the help of “enigmail” as shown below….

a) Click on “OpenPGP” in the menu bar of the Thunderbird main window. Select “Key Management”.
b) In Enigmail Key Manager ~ click on “Generate” tab in the menu bar and select “New key pair”.
c) At the very top of the window you will see a combo box showing all of your email addresses. GnuPG will associate your new key with an email address.
Enigmail is just asking you which address you want to use for this key. Select whichever account will be receiving encrypted mail.

NOTE ~ We can use same keys for multiple accounts.

d) You can use passphrase or just check “No passphrase” checkbox to generate keys without passphrase.
e) Create  directory to save “Revocation Certificates”…

arunsb@arun:~$ mkdir /home/arunsb/.gpg_key/

f) Click on “Generate key” button to generate keys. done..

To share keys easily you can publish your keys with keyserver.

a) In “Key Management” window select your keys and then  click on ‘Keyserver’ tab in main menu and then click on “Upload Public Keys”
Note ~ make sure to check  “Display All Keys by Default” checkbox (to list all keys)

Step 4] Compose the mail and sign it ~

Compose the mail and tell Enigmail to sign it.  At the top of your Compose window you will see a button reading “OpenPGP”. Click on this. Make sure that the “Sign” option, and only that, is checked. Finally “Send” the mail! (You will be asked for your passphrase. Once you enter it, Enigmail will sign your email and send it if you have generate keys with passphrase else it will not ask)

/pgp_enigmail-compose

Enjoy!!

Regards,
Arun Bagul

IndianGNU.org -Third anniversary!!

IndianGNU.org -Third anniversary!!

Dear All,

Today , we are celebrating third anniversary!!. We have successfully completed three years of social contribution in open source and free software movement. I am very much sure that our existence and contribution is recognized and encouraged by many open source and free software contributors (gurus). It was simply impossible without your support, contribution and hard work.

We started with blogging, sharing our knowledge, ideas and even problems!! also. This is helped us to learn new technologies, problem solving skills and many more things.

openlsm Project ~

openslm-0.99
development platform was released on 10th Jun 2009. We got positive response from users,community members, and other open source communities. Please refer the article for more information http://www.indiangnu.org/2009/openlsm-099-released/

Cheers,
IndianGNU.org

How to configure TATA Indicom/BSNL/Reliance Broadband+ Netconnect ( EDVO usb modem ) on Ubuntu Linux

How to configure TATA Indicom/BSNL/Reliance Broadband+ Netconnect ( EDVO usb modem ) on Ubuntu Linux

Introduction ~

This article is about how to configure TATA Indicom,BSNL and Reliance Broadband+ Netconnect ( EDVO usb modem ) on Ubuntu Linux.

To configure Reliance,BSNL and Tataindicom epi valley usb modem please refer the following article ~

http://www.indiangnu.org/2008/tata-indicom-usb-modem-epi-valley-on-ubuntu-linux/

To configure Tataindicom,Reliance Huawei datacard refer the following article ~

http://www.indiangnu.org/2008/tata-indicom-datacard-huawei-cdma-on-linuxubuntu/

** EVDO ?

EVolution-Data Optimized (EVDO) is a telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. It uses multiplexing techniques including code division multiple access (CDMA) as well as time division multiple access (TDMA)
to maximize both individual user’s throughput and the overall system throughput. It is standardized by (3G) 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) as part of the CDMA2000 family of standards and has been adopted by many mobile phone service providers around the world – particularly those previously employing CDMA networks.

How to configure Reliance Broadband+ Netconnect –

Step 1] Mount USB file system to “/proc/bus/usb” –

root@laptop:~# ls  /proc/bus/usb/
root@laptop:~#

* It shows that usbfs is not mounted on “/proc/bus/usb”. To mount run following command….

root@laptop:/var/src/usb_modeswitch-1.0.5# mount -t usbfs  none /proc/bus/usb
root@laptop:/var/src/usb_modeswitch-1.0.5# ls /proc/bus/usb/
001  002  003  004  005  006  007  devices
root@laptop:/var/src/usb_modeswitch-1.0.5#

Step 2] Get the status of Reliance Broadband+ USB device ~

* lsusb list USB devices connected to PC as well as information about USB buses in the system and the devices connected to them.

* Output before connecting Reliance Broadband+ Netconnect usb modem –

root@laptop:~# lsusb
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 007 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 006 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
…..
root@laptop:~#

* Let’s connect Reliance Broadband+ Netconnect! usb modem –

root@laptop:~# lsusb
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 007 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 006 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 005 Device 004: ID 19d2:fff5
Bus 005 Device 003: ID 08ff:2580 AuthenTec, Inc. AES2501 Fingerprint Sensor
…..
root@laptop:~#

* Bus 005 Device 004: ID 19d2:fff5  – This shows that the Reliance (EVDO) usb device is detected with Vendor_id  19d2  and product_id fff5

root@laptop:~# cat /proc/bus/usb/devices

T:  Bus=07 Lev=01 Prnt=01 Port=01 Cnt=01 Dev#= 23 Spd=12  MxCh= 0
D:  Ver= 1.10 Cls=00(>ifc ) Sub=00 Prot=00 MxPS=64 #Cfgs=  1
P:  Vendor=19d2 ProdID=fff5 Rev= 0.00
S:  Manufacturer=ZTE, Incorporated
S:  Product=USB Storage
S:  SerialNumber=000000000002
C:* #Ifs= 1 Cfg#= 1 Atr=c0 MxPwr=100mA
I:* If#= 0 Alt= 0 #EPs= 2 Cls=08(stor.) Sub=06 Prot=50 Driver=usbserial_generic
E:  Ad=89(I) Atr=02(Bulk) MxPS=  64 Ivl=0ms
E:  Ad=0a(O) Atr=02(Bulk) MxPS=  64 Ivl=0ms

root@laptop:~# dmesg | tail
[15035.656075] usb 7-2: new full speed USB device using uhci_hcd and address 24
[15035.814188] usb 7-2: configuration #1 chosen from 1 choice
[15035.827708] scsi10 : SCSI emulation for USB Mass Storage devices
[15035.828851] usb-storage: device found at 24
[15035.828856] usb-storage: waiting for device to settle before scanning
[15040.831095] usb-storage: device scan complete
[15040.834105] scsi 10:0:0:0: Direct-Access     ZTE      USB Storage FFF1 2.31 PQ: 0 ANSI: 2
[15040.839233] sd 10:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk
[15040.839378] sd 10:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg2 type 0
root@laptop:~#

*** Reliance Broadband+ EVDO USB is detected as “USB storage device” as shown above…

Step 3] How to use Reliance Broadband+ Netconnect as USB Modem –

To use Reliance Broadband+ usb as USB Modem. We need to switch the usb mode of this device with the help of “usb_modeswitch” tool.

Download ~ http://www.draisberghof.de/usb_modeswitch/usb_modeswitch-1.0.5.tar.bz2

Help – http://www.draisberghof.de/usb_modeswitch/

* Download and extract the “usb_modeswitch” –

root@laptop:/var/src# wget -c  http://www.draisberghof.de/usb_modeswitch/usb_modeswitch-1.0.5.tar.bz2

root@laptop:/var/src# tar xvfj usb_modeswitch-1.0.5.tar.bz2

* Now compile and install –

root@laptop:/var/src/usb_modeswitch-1.0.5# gcc -l usb -o usb_modeswitch usb_modeswitch.c
root@laptop:/var/src/usb_modeswitch-1.0.5# make install
mkdir -p /usr/sbin
install ./usb_modeswitch /usr/sbin
mkdir -p /etc
install –mode=644 ./usb_modeswitch.conf /etc
root@laptop:/var/src/usb_modeswitch-1.0.5#

**** Now configure USB mode switching –

a) Edit configuration file “/etc/usb_modeswitch.conf” –

Just search for vendor and product id eg (19d2 and fff5) in config “/etc/usb_modeswitch.conf” file….
This file contains most of the details. I choose following setting and that work’s for me

root@laptop:~# cat  /etc/usb_modeswitch.conf

###################
# ZTE AC8710
#

DefaultVendor=  0x19d2
DefaultProduct= 0xfff5

TargetVendor=   0x19d2
TargetProduct=  0xfff1

MessageContent=”5553424312345678c00000008000069f030000000000000000000000000000″

root@laptop:~#

b) Now run “usb_modeswitch” command to switch the mode of USB device

root@laptop:~# usb_modeswitch -c /etc/usb_modeswitch.conf

Step 4] Load “usbserial” module

* Remember in Ubuntu 09.04 the “usbserial” is buildin kernel. To load that module we need to modify “grub.conf” or “menu.lst” GRUB config file

root@laptop:~# cat /boot/grub/menu.lst

title        Ubuntu 9.04, kernel 2.6.28-11-generic
uuid        c98db8a7-0a2e-4cea-b9d5-43a30c892fb0
kernel        /vmlinuz-2.6.28-11-generic root=/dev/sda5  ro quiet splash  usbserial.vendor=0x19d2  usbserial.product=0xfff1
initrd        /initrd.img-2.6.28-11-generic
quiet
….
……
root@laptop:~#

**** Reboot the machine and run the following command

* Output before switch….

root@laptop:~# lsusb
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 007 Device 023: ID 19d2:fff5
Bus 007 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
…..
root@laptop:~#

root@laptop:~# usb_modeswitch -c /etc/usb_modeswitch.conf

* Output after switch….

root@laptop:~# lsusb
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 007 Device 024: ID 19d2:fff1
Bus 007 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
…..
root@laptop:~#

root@laptop:~# usb_modeswitch  -v 19d2 -p fff1

Looking for default devices …
Found default devices (1)
Accessing device 004 on bus 005 …
Using endpoints 0x02 (out) and 0x82 (in)
Not a storage device, skipping SCSI inquiry

Device description data (identification)
————————-
Manufacturer: ZTE, Incorporated
Product: ZTE CDMA Tech
Serial No.: not provided
————————-
Warning: no switching method given.
-> Run lsusb to note any changes. Bye.

root@laptop:~#

root@laptop:~# cat /proc/bus/usb/devices

T:  Bus=07 Lev=01 Prnt=01 Port=01 Cnt=01 Dev#= 24 Spd=12  MxCh= 0
D:  Ver= 1.10 Cls=00(>ifc ) Sub=00 Prot=00 MxPS=64 #Cfgs=  1
P:  Vendor=19d2 ProdID=fff1 Rev= 0.00
S:  Manufacturer=ZTE, Incorporated
S:  Product=ZTE CDMA Tech

C:* #Ifs= 6 Cfg#= 1 Atr=a0 MxPwr=500mA
I:* If#= 0 Alt= 0 #EPs= 3 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=ff Prot=ff Driver=(none)
E:  Ad=81(I) Atr=03(Int.) MxPS=  16 Ivl=128ms

root@laptop:~# dmesg  | tail
[   70.985075] usbserial_generic 5-1:1.1: generic converter detected
[   70.985109] usb 5-1: generic converter now attached to ttyUSB1
[   70.987028] usbserial_generic 5-1:1.2: generic converter detected
[   70.987064] usb 5-1: generic converter now attached to ttyUSB2
[   70.989589] usbserial_generic 5-1:1.3: generic converter detected
[   70.989623] usb 5-1: generic converter now attached to ttyUSB3
[   70.991023] usbserial_generic 5-1:1.4: generic converter detected
[   70.991061] usb 5-1: generic converter now attached to ttyUSB4
[   70.993066] usbserial_generic 5-1:1.5: generic converter detected
[   70.993109] usb 5-1: generic converter now attached to ttyUSB5
root@laptop:~#

*** It shows that Reliance Broadband+ EVDO usb  is detected as CDMA modem

Step 5] Configure wvdail –

* Run “wvdialconf” to detect and edit “/etc/wvdial.conf” confile

root@laptop:~# wvdialconf
Editing `/etc/wvdial.conf’.
Scanning your serial ports for a modem.
Modem Port Scan<*1>: S0   S1

root@laptop:~# cat /etc/wvdial.conf

[Dialer Defaults]
Init1 = ATZ
Init2 = ATQ0 V1 E1 S0=0 &C1 &D2 +FCLASS=0
Password = your_mobile_no
Username = your_mobile_no
Phone = #777
PPPP Path = /usr/sbin/pppd
Modem Type = Analog Modem
Stupid Mode = 1
Tonline = 0
Baud = 9600
New PPPD = 1
Modem = /dev/ttyUSB0
ISDN = 0
root@laptop:~#

* Now it’s time to start surfing…..

root@laptop:~# wvdial &
[1] 21710
root@laptop:~#

root@laptop:~# ifconfig

ppp0 Link encap:Point-to-Point Protocol
inet addr:115.184.XX.BB  P-t-P:220.224.CC.DD  Mask:255.255.255.255
UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
RX packets:4310 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:4347 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:3
RX bytes:2268618 (2.2 MB)  TX bytes:445276 (445.2 KB)

Enjoy,
Arun Bagul